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This template is used to create footnotes. It is an alternative to using <ref></ref> tags, which suffer from some technical limitations, such as the inability to use the pipe trick or substitution. Most frequently, this template is used to nest footnotes, i.e. adding footnotes within a footnote, which is not possible with <ref></ref> tags alone.


{{refn|group=groupname|name=name|Contents of the footnote}}


You type You get
An example.{{refn|group=note|name=first|A note.<ref>An included reference.</ref>}}
Another example.{{refn|group=note|Another note.<ref>Another included reference.</ref>}}
A third example.{{refn|group=note|The third note.<ref>The reference in the third note.</ref>}}
Repeating the first example.{{refn|group=note|name=first}}

<references group="note" />

<references />

An example.[note 1] Another example.[note 2] A third example.[note 3] Repeating the first example.[note 1]

  1. 1.0 1.1 A note.[1]
  2. Another note.[2]
  3. The third note.[3]
  1. An included reference.
  2. Another included reference.
  3. The reference in the third note.


If the reference or note content is missing, then There are <ref> tags on this page without content in them will be displayed.

If the note content contains an equal sign (=), the equal sign will be interpreted as setting off a named parameter and cause an error. This can be worked around by explicitly defining the numbered parameter. For example:

You type You get

There are <ref> tags on this page without content in them

{{refn|1= 1+1=2}}


  1. 1+1=2


This template's code was taken from the English Wikipedia.

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